Thursday, September 29, 2011

Arch Rock, Mackinac Island, Michigan, 1906





Arch Rock. Mackinac Island. Mich.  149 feet above the lake surface.

Postmarked Mackinac Island, Michigan, August 6, 1906, 12:00 M
Rec'd Wichita, Kansas, August 8, 1906, 7:00 AM

Miss Jessie I. Burrows
1153 University Ave.
Wichita, Kan.

7/5/06

Dear Jessie.  Saw this place this morning. Finest drive.  Coolest ?, and most beautiful sights one may see.  Will was with us six hours.  Wish it were 60.  Got your letter in Chicago.  Will write more.  Sincerely, Mrs. Bass.


Wednesday, September 28, 2011

RTD's Favorite Note

RTD, a regular reader of this blog, kindly submitted his choice for most beautiful money, the 1975 $50 Canadian Note below:



On Second Thought

Yesterday I was lamenting my age and our ugly money.  While I still don't trust our government to make good decisions about money, I figured I'd publicly eat my words after receiving a rather pretty quarter in change.


When I showed it to my son, the first thing he said was, "Pretty quarter."

Thanks to everyone who took the time yesterday to send me examples of pretty or ugly money.  No offense to my Dutch readers, but I think my vote for ugliest money examples sent in were the Dutch 100 and 1000 Guilder notes (used before the Euro).



What were they thinking?


Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Ugly Money

I can tell I'm turning old.  How, you ask?  It seems like more and more things bother me all the time.  The other day, I was handed my change and I looked at the $5 bill and I couldn't help but think, "Boy our money has gotten ugly."  It may be the awkward way Lincoln has his neck cricked or the giant purple 5 on the back that bothers me.  Maybe it's the gaseous cloud of yellow "05"s, but something's not right.


I don't think I'm alone in this belief, but in case you're not convinced.  I'm going to post what I believe is some of our prettiest money from the past, the Educational Series of 1896.  There is the $1, "History Instructing Youth," with the open Constitution pointing towards the Washington Monument and the Capitol, the $2, "Science Presenting Steam and Electricity to Commerce and Manufacturing," and the $5, "Electricity as the Dominant Force in the World."  Click on the image below for a good look.




Sunday, September 25, 2011

Charles Upham

Yesterday's Person-of-Mystery was Charles Upham, the most highly decorated Commonwealth soldier from World War II.



Michael was certainly on the right track yesterday and I'm actually suspicious that Brett may have known who it was and didn't guess.  You all are far too modest.  Rugby is still on my mind and the Rugby World Cup is currently underway in New Zealand, so continuing the theme from last week, I decided to feature a war hero from New Zealand.


Charles Upham is one of only three men in history to twice win the Victoria Cross (akin to our Medal of Honor) and the only combat infantryman to be so honored.


A sheep farmer by profession, Upham enlisted in the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force in 1939 and was sent to Greece in anticipation of a German attack.  Soon his unit was withdrawn to Crete where he earned his first Victoria Cross for numerous actions between May 22 and 30, 1941.  The first citation read as follows:

War Office,
14th October,
1941.

     The KING has been graciously pleased to approve of awards of the VICTORIA CROSS to the undermentioned:—
Second-Lieutenant Charles Hazlitt Upham (8077), New Zealand Military Forces.
     During the operations in Crete this officer performed a series of remarkable exploits, showing outstanding leadership, tactical skill and utter indifference to danger.
     He commanded a forward platoon in the attack on MALEME on 22nd May and fought his way forward for over 3,000 yards un- supported by any other arms and against a defence strongly organised in depth. During this operation his platoon destroyed numer- ous enemy posts but on three occasions
sections were temporarily held up.
     In the first case, under a heavy fire from a machine gun nest he advanced to close quarters with pistol and grenades, so demoralizing the occupants that his section

was able to " mopup " with ease.
     Another of his sections was then held up by two machine guns in a house. He went in and placed a grenade through a window, destroying the crew of one machine gun and several others, the other machine gun being silenced by the fire of his sections.

     In'the third case he crawled to within 15 yards of an M.G. post and killed the gunners
with a grenade.
     When his Company withdrew from MALEME he helped to carry a wounded man out under fire, and together with another officer rallied more men together to carry other wounded men out.
     He was then sent to bring in a company which had become isolated. With a Corporal he went through enemy territory over 600 yards, killing two Germans on the way, found the company, and brought it back to the Battalion's new position. But for this action it would have been completely cut off.
     During the following two days his platoon occupied an exposed position on forward slopes and was continuously under fire. Second Lieutenant Upham was blown over by one mortar shell, and painfully wounded by a piece of shrapnel behind the left shoulder, by another. He disregarded this wound and remained on duty. He also re- ceived a bullet in the foot which he later removed in Egypt.
     At GALATOS on 25th May his platoon was heavily engaged and came under severe mortar and machine-gun fire. While his platoon stopped under cover of a ridge Second-Lieutenant Upham went forward, observed the enemy and brought the platoon forward when the Germans advanced. They killed over 40 with fire and grenades and
forced the remainder to fall back.
     When his platoon was ordered to retire he sent it back under the platoon Serjeant and he went back to warn other troops that they were being cut off. When he came out him- self he was fired on by two Germans. He fell and shammed dead, then crawled into a position and having the use of only one arm rested his rifle in the fork of a tree and as the Germans came forward he killed them both. The second to fall actually hit the muzzleof the rifle as he fell.

     On 30th May at SPHAKIA his platoon was ordered to deal with a party of the enemy which had advanced down a ravine to near Force Headquarters. Though in an exhausted condition he climbed the steep hill to the west of the ravine, placed his men in positions on the slope overlooking the ravine and himself went to the top with a Bren Gun and two riflemen. By clever tactics he induced the enemy party to expose itself and then at a range of 500 yards shot 22 and caused the remainder to disperse in panic.
     During the whole of the operations he suffered from dysentery and was able to eat very little, in addition to being wounded and bruised.
     He showed superb coolness, great skill and dash and complete disregard of danger. His conduct and leadership inspired his whole platoon to fight magnificently throughout, and in fact was an inspiration to the Battalion.




After being patched up and having a bullet removed from his foot in Egypt, his unit was again facing the Germans in North Africa the next year.  Specifically he preformed courageously during fighting at First El Alamein, July 14-15, 1942 (citation to follow).  After performing near superhuman feats and recovering from wounds received by artillery and mortar attack, he eventually was captured by the Germans.


Although it was immediately thought he should be awarded a second Victoria Cross, it was determined that the matter would be revisited after his eventual release.  In 1945, when the review process was complete, King George VI queried military officials if a second Victoria Cross was deserved.  Major General Howard Kippenberger is said to have replied, "In my respectful opinion, Sir, Upham won the Victoria Cross several times over."


Here's the official citation for the Bar to the Victoria Cross:



War Office, 26th September, 1945. Captain Upham, without hesitation, at
     The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of a Bar to the VICTORIA CROSS to:—
Captain Charles Hazlitt UPHAM, V.C. (8077), his men and, in spite of the fierce resistance New Zealand Military Forces. of the enemy and the heavy casualties on
     Captain C. H. Upham, V.C.,. was commanding a Company of New Zealand troops in the Western Desert during the operations which culminated in the attack on El Ruweisat Ridge on the night of I4th-15th July, 1942.
     In spite of being twice wounded, once when crossing open ground swept by enemy fire to inspect his forward sections guarding our mine-fields and again when he completely destroyed an entire truck load of German soldiers with hand grenades, Captain Upham insisted on remaining with his men to take part in the final assault.
     During the opening stages of the attack on the ridge Captain Upham's Company formed part of the reserve battalion, but, when communications with the forward troops broke down and he was instructed to send
up an officer to report on the progress of the attack, he went out himself armed with a Spandau gun and, after several sharp encounters with enemy machine gun posts, succeeded in bringing back the required information.
     Just before dawn the reserve battalion was ordered forward, but, when it had almost reached its objective, very heavy fire was encountered from a strongly defended enemy locality, consisting of four machine gun posts and a number of tanks.
     Captain Upham, without hesitation, at once led his Company in a determined attack on the two nearest strongpoints on the left flank of the sector. His voice could be heard above the din of battle cheering on his men and, in spite of the fierce resistance of the enemy and the heavy casualties on both sides, the objective was captured.
     Captain Upham, during the engagement, himself destroyed a German tank and several guns and vehicles with grenades and although he was shot through the elbow by a machine gun bullet and had his arm broken, he went on again to a forward position and brought back some of his men who had become isolated. He continued to dominate the situation until his men had beaten off a violent enemy counterattack and consolidated the vital position which they had won under his inspiring leadership.
     Exhausted by pain from his wound and weak from loss of blood Captain Upham was then removed to the Regimental Aid Post but immediately his wound had been dressed he returned to his men, remaining with them all day long under heavy enemy artillery and mortar fire, until he was again severely wounded and being now unable to move fell into the hands of the enemy when, his gallant Company having been reduced to only six survivors, his position was finally over-run  by superior enemy forces, in spite of the out standing gallantry and magnificent leadership shown by Captain Upham.
     The Victoria Cross was conferred on Captain Upham for conspicuous bravery during the operations in Crete in May, 1941, and the award was announced in the London Gazette dated I4th October, 1941.


(Upham's decorations – note the VC with Bar on left)

After his capture, Upham attempted numerous escapes from captivity, jumping from transport trucks and trains and attempting to scale prison fences.  He was eventually placed in solitary confinement and given two armed guards, but still attempted escape.  Finally, he was sent to the infamous Colditz Castle in late 1944.  Immediately after Upham was liberated, he broke into the German armory at the prison and pursued the now fleeing enemy on his own.

(Charles Upham on his farm in New Zealand)

He was eventually returned to England, where he was reunited with his sweetheart and married.  They returned to New Zealand where people had raised £10,000 for a farm.  He instead donated the money to help children of other soldiers attend college.  Upham eventually bought a farm on his own and lived out most of the rest of his days in quiet seclusion is a rural area in the Canterbury Region of New Zealand's South Island.  It was said that he would never allow a German automobile on his property.






Saturday, September 24, 2011

Person-of-Mystery

Okay, there are just too many people guessing my photos too easily, so it's time to take it up a notch.  This week I've doubled the difficulty and set the bar even higher by providing an elderly photo.  Good luck!




Who could I be?  That's the mystery!  Go ahead and take a guess and then go enjoy your day.  Check back tomorrow and I'll reveal the answer.  The first correct post will be declared the winner.



Friday, September 23, 2011

John Philip Sousa's Favorite Food

One of the most enjoyable aspects of history for me is the little tidbits of trivia you discover along the way that when taken together help enrich your understanding of the past.  In fact the word trivia comes from the Latin word "trivium" which was the place where three roads met.  In the same way, trivia is the intersection of information.



John Philip Sousa was obviously best known for the stirring marches he composed, but perhaps, if you are so inclined, you might like to try his favorite meal as reported in the Chicago Herald on July 23, 1916.  It's pretty much spaghetti and meatballs, but for a 1922 cookbook contribution, he titled the dish:

Pelotas รก la Portuguese
Tomato sauce: one quart can of tomatoes; put in kettle on top of stove, simmer or let boil slowly for one and a half hours. Add pepper, salt, two onions cut in fine slices, four allspice and four cloves, the cloves and allspice to be added after it starts to boil. After one and a half hours add:

• Pelotas (meat balls) – Two pounds chopped meat (beef, as hamburger steak). Add one onion chopped fine, one cup bread crumbs, a little parsley, salt and pepper. Make into meat balls about the size of a plum. Put into sauce and boil one and one-half hours slowly. This makes fully three hours’ slow boiling for the sauce.

• Spaghetti – use a package or a pound of spaghetti (not macaroni). Have a large pot of boiling water with about one table-spoonful of salt. Slide the spaghetti into the water, Do not break it. Boil exactly twenty minutes. Must be tender, not tough, not doughy.


To sauce add three bay leaves one hour before taking off the stove. Serve spaghetti on large platter, pouring tomato sauce over it. Serve pelotas on smaller platter, allowing a small quantity of sauce to remain. Serve grated parmesan cheese on side. Use the piece of cheese to grate, not bottled cheese.

Mr. Sousa was quoted in 1916 and again in 1922 as saying, "This serves from six to eight people and is my favorite dish."



Thursday, September 22, 2011

Armchair Archaeology

I've always thought archaeology was cool!  When I had more money, I even used to subscribe to several archaeological journals to keep up to date on the latest news.  It would be a thrill for me someday just be an ignorant laborer on a dig.  So it took me by surprise when I read HERE that the Egypt Exploration Society was looking for online volunteers to help decode the more than 500,000 papyri fragments they have in their collection.


To be honest, the thing that really caught my eye was the funny picture of the goddess Agnoia pictured above.  Agnoia is the Greek word for ignorance, so I don't think Agnoia was seriously a goddess, particularly since this picture came from one of Menander's comedies.  But you never know about those wacky ancient peoples!

The texts are in Greek, but you don't need to know Greek, they have a handy interactive guide to help you decode. What they're really looking for is multiple sets of eyes to help them transcribe these ancient writings.


Click HERE for more detailed instructions and to get started!  


Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Railway Exchange Building, Chicago, Ill., 1906





Railway Exchange Building. Michigan Avenue and Jackson Blvd. Chicago, Ill.

Postmarked Alva, Oklahoma, July 13, 1906, 1:30 PM
Rec'd Wichita, Kansas, July 14, 1906, 9:00 PM

Miss Jessie Burrows
1153 University Ave
Wichita,
Kans.

Means to an end

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Feel-Good Movie Recommendation

If you were wondering why Jack Harrison was on my mind for this last Person-of-Mystery contest, it had everything to do with watching a movie over at a buddy's house the night before.  From time-to-time, my pal Mike (who only has daughters) likes to hold a Men's BBQ Night at his place.  He invites a bunch of guys over for dinner and then we typically watch some kind of war movie.  Last Friday, his brother Kendall brought over the movie "Forever Strong."


Now, I'm not usually into sports movies, but this one caught my attention as it was about rugby and I played for a short time when I was younger.  It's definitely a feel-good movie, but one that's based on multiple real events and one I'd recommend.  For those of you on Netflix, it's available on instant streaming.


Sunday, September 18, 2011

Jack Harrison

Congratulations to Robert, winner of yesterday's Person-of-Mystery contest!  He correctly identified Jack Harrison from the city of Hull in England.


By occupation he was a school teacher in Hull, but Jack was best known as being a masterful rugby player.  He played four seasons with Hull FC (also known as the "black and whites") where he still holds the record for the most tries (akin to touchdowns in American football), 52 in the 1913/1914 season.



In 1915, Harrison joined the military and trained as an officer.  The following year, he was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant of the 6th Platoon, 11th Battalion.  In late March of 1917, he was awarded the Military Cross (Britain's third highest award) for leading his platoon through No Man's Land, reaching his objective and capturing a prisoner.


Just a little over a month later on May 3, 1917, at the Battle of Oppy Wood, near Arras in Northern France, Harrison again demonstrated extreme gallantry under fire when his platoon, which had been twice repulsed, was pinned down a third time between the trenches by heavy machine gun fire.  Realizing that everyone would die unless action was taken, Harrison singlehandedly charged across an open field and reaching the machine gun emplacement, silenced it with a grenade.  Sadly, he was never seen again, nor was his body recovered after the battle.  For this action, his widow Lilian was presented his Victoria Cross (Britain's highest honor) by King George V at Buckingham Palace.


Jack's only son, Jack, Jr., was later killed in the defense of Dunkirk in World War II.  In late 2003, a memorial was erected outside the stadium where Hull FC plays honoring Jack Harrison.


Saturday, September 17, 2011

Person-of-Mystery


Who could I be?  That's the mystery!  Go ahead and take a guess and then go enjoy your day.  Check back tomorrow and I'll reveal the answer.  The first correct post will be declared the winner.

A black and white photo.  Just try and get this one.




Thursday, September 15, 2011

Local Post-Mortem Photography

Death was a more accepted part of the human existence in the 1800s and early 1900s.  People died more often at younger ages and it was common to have to deal with death earlier in life.  Perhaps then it's not surprising that there are a strikingly large number of photographs from this time that depict death.  We've probably all seen photos of outlaws, sometimes plugged with multiple bullet holes surrounded by curious or happy town folk.  One aspect of photography from this era that is very prominent, but not as well known is "post-mortem photography," or staged photos of deceased persons often arranged into family pictures or in posed settings to make them seem more alive.

Today these photos seem very strange to us.  We take so many photos of people when they're living, it would seem odd to remember someone in such an unnatural state, but back in this era, people did not take as many photos.  Sometimes these would be the only photos of the whole family or all the kids.

Last night was rummaging through some papers when I stumbled upon the November 2005 issue of the local "Bulletin of the San Luis Obispo County Genealogical Society."  At first I couldn't remember why I had saved it until I came across this photo:

(Burial of Michael Fitzgibbons in the Old Paso Robles Cemetery, 1901)

I saved this photo because for the last several years the students in my history classes have been conducting cemetery surveys in local graveyards for the local historical society.

I haven't quite figured out what to make of this photo.  What are your thoughts?

You can of course do an internet image search for "post-mortem photos" and come across plenty of examples online.  I saved this one because it was local, but I still haven't decided if I will share it with my students.


Wednesday, September 14, 2011

The Pace That Kills



An unwritten post card from the collection of my great-grandmother, Jessie Burrows Benton.

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Taylor County, Iowa, Courthouse, 1907



Postmarked Bedford, Iowa, June 8, 1907, 12:00 M
Miss Jessie I. Burrows.
Wichita,
Kansas.

1153 Univ. Ave.

Jessie - This is our courthouse.  What do you think of it?  I am waiting for that letter.  Mary


Sunday, September 11, 2011

Robert F. Stockton

Congratulations to Michael, winner of yesterday's Person-of-Mystery contest!  He correctly identified Commodore Robert F. Stockton.


California history was on my mind last week as September 9th was California Day.  The Golden State was admitted to the Union on September 9, 1850, and Commodore Stockton had a large part to play in the process.

(Raising Old Glory over Monterey)

Hearing that war with Mexico had commenced and fearing a British takeover of the nascent California Republic, Commodore John D. Sloat, raced the United States Navy's Pacific Squadron to Monterey to declare California part of the United States.  Only a week after the uneventful flag raising in Monterey, poor health required Sloat to relinquish command to Commodore Stockton of the USS Congress.

(Battle of San Pasqual)

Now the commanding the largest American force in California, Stockton pursued the retreating Mexican forces to Los Angeles and relieved the besieged forces under the command of Stephen Kearney at San Pasqual.  Stockton then defeated the Mexicans at the battles of Rio San Gabriel and La Mesa, forcing the remaining Mexicans to surrender all of California under the Treaty of Cahuenga.  Following the war, Stockton was elected as a US Senator from his home state of New Jersey.  

(Treaty of Cahuenga)

Although, he is best known for his actions during the Mexican War, there were two rather unsuccessful 'peacemaker' incidents in his life, which should be noted, both of which also involved the tenth president, John Tyler (who was also on my mind after the comment by Robert on my earlier George Washington Parke Custis post).

(John Tyler)

John Tyler was a highly unusual president.  He was the the first vice president to become president after the death of a former president.  He was the first president to have a first lady die and the first president to marry while in office (he also had more children than any other president - 15).  He was also the only president to serve in the government of a foreign nation after his term.  And as Robert pointed out earlier, Tyler is the earliest President to still have living grandchildren (two of whom are still alive today).

(One of President Tyler's two surviving grandsons, Lyon Tyler)

Tyler also came very close to being the first president killed while in office.  On February 28, 1844, President Tyler, along with many of his cabinet members, his fiancee and her father, former first lady Dolley Madison, and many members of Congress and important dignitaries were aboard the US Navy's first screw steam warship, the USS Princeton, for an trial run down the Potomac River.  The then Captain Robert Stockton, was encouraged by his guests to offer a one last demonstration firing of the 12 inch main gun, nicknamed the "Peacemaker," Stockton himself designed.

(Explosion on the USS Princeton)

Tyler was invited up on deck, but remained below to have a few drinks with some of the guests.  Up above, Stockton's gun was again fired, but exploded and sent shrapnel into the crowd, killing six including Secretary of State Abel Upshur, Secretary of the Navy Thomas Gilmer, and Tyler's future father-in-law David Gardiner, as well as injuring twenty others.  Stockton was brought before a Court of Inquiry and exonerated, many think to his earlier support of President Tyler's campaign.

(Peace Convention of 1861)

Later in life, Stockton's paths would again cross with Tyler when the two were both delegates, Stockton from New Jersey and Tyler from Virginia, selected by their respective states to attend the Peace Conference of 1861, an unsuccessful last-ditch effort to avert the Civil War.  The Conference ended without compromise and the men returned to their respective states, former US President Tyler eventually was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives.  Stockton was asked to lead the New Jersey State Militia when Lee's Army was in Pennsylvania, but it wasn't needed after Gettysburg. Stockton died in 1866 and is buried in Princeton, New Jersey.


Saturday, September 10, 2011

Person-of-Mystery


Who could I be?  That's the mystery!  Go ahead and take a guess and then go enjoy your day.  Check back tomorrow and I'll reveal the answer.  The first correct post will be declared the winner.

Mystery theme for the day: An Unsuccessful Peacemaker




Friday, September 09, 2011

Edward Superior Goodner



Today, I'm featuring a very young photo of my great-grandfather, E. S. Goodner.  I'm guessing that this photo was taken about 1883 or 1884 in Sulphur Springs, Texas.  He was named for his two grandfathers, Edward and Superior.  His father died when he was 5 years old and he later became the man of the family, looking after his mother and sisters.  I love the clothes and the smile.  Based on the recollections of everyone who knew him, he remained a snappy dresser and a man of mirth.


Thursday, September 08, 2011

McGurk Effect

Yesterday, I mentioned optical illusions in my post.  Many are unaware that visual illusions can also alter speech perception.  That is to say, the way you view something can change the way something sounds to your brain!



One great example of this is the McGurk Effect.  Watch the video below and listen to the sound that the man is making.  Make sure you are watching the man talk.  Then close your eyes.  Does the sound change based on whether you are watching him or not?



This effect is produced by visually recording the man making one sound and then dubbing a separate sound for the audio.  The interesting thing is, that for many, you can look away and look back and the sound will change for you depending on whether you are looking at the man speaking or not.


Wednesday, September 07, 2011

Akiyoshi Kitaoka

One of my students asked about optical illusions the other day.  Most optical illusions were created years ago and are commonly used in many books.  However, Dr. Akiyoshi Kitaoka, a professor of psychology at Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto, Japan, continues to create some very nice illusions.


Dr. Kitaoka is best known for his rotating snake illusion which does not actually move, but certainly appears to do so.  Click on the image below for best viewing.


More illusions can be found on his website, HERE.



Sunday, September 04, 2011

Ion Perdicaris

Yesterday's Person-of-Mystery, was none other than Ion Perdicaris, the central figure of the Perdicaris Affair, one of the best known "Big Stick" incidents of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency.

(Ion Perdicaris)

Ion Perdicaris was born to privilege.  Ion's father had been a former Counsul from Greece, turned successful businessman, and Ion's mother had been the daughter of a wealthy South Carolinian family.  Ion maintained a New Jersey playboy lifestyle until the Civil War, when the conflict began to threaten his fortune.  Fearing Confederate confiscation of his South Carolina holdings, Perdicaris traveled to Greece and abandoned his American citizenship believing that the South wouldn't seize the holdings of a foreign national.

(The city gates of old Tangier, locals mixing with Westerners)

Perdicaris eventually moved to Tangier, Morocco, where he continued his life of ease.  He build a house he called "The Place of Nightingales" and filled it was exotic animals.  Perdicaris became enamored with Moroccan life, wrote several books on his new home, and became the unofficial leader of the foreign community in Tangier.

(Tangier)

While on a visit to England, Perdicaris met Ellen Varley (the wife of C. F. Varley, the famed electrical engineer known for his work on the transatlantic cable) and they began an affair.  Two years later, in 1873, the now divorced Ellen left her husband and with her children took up residence with Perdicaris in Tangiers.

(Raisuli)

This romantic existence was disrupted in May of 1904, when Ion and Ellen's son, Cromwell Varley, were kidnapped from the Perdicaris estate by men loyal to Mulai Amhed er Raisuli, Sharif of the Jebala tribe.  Although Raisuli was a claimant to the throne of Morocco and well-educated, he was widely regarded as a bandit and a womanizer and as such earned the reputation as the "Last of the Barbary Pirates."  After the abduction of Perdicaris and Varley, Raisuli included in his ransom demand to the Sultan of Morocco, $70,000 and the control of two of Morocco's wealthiest districts.

(Sultan Abdul Aziz)

Back in the United States, word that a prominent American citizen had been abducted outraged President Roosevelt who immediately ordered seven warships of the American Navy, along with several companies of Marines to Morocco to secure the American Legation and protect Mrs. Perdicaris.  Roosevelt also unsuccessfully attempted to persuade Britain and France to join him in pressuring the Sultan to secure the release of Perdicaris.

(USS Brooklyn, one of the many warships sent to Morocco for Perdicaris)

To make a tense situation worse, Roosevelt was advised by State Department officials on June 1, that Perdicaris was not actually an American citizen anymore, but had abandoned his citizenship years before.  Roosevelt reasoned that this new information made no difference as Raisuli believed him to be an American.

(President Theodore Roosevelt)

Striving to put the situation to a quick end, Secretary of State John Hay issued the famous statement at the Republican National Convention, "This government wants Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead."  The following morning newspapers were printing that our government was demanding Pedicaris alive or Raisuli dead!



By June 21, the Sultan agreed to meet Raisuli's demands and Roosevelt emerged a hero in the eyes of the American public, as a leader courageous to defend Americans anywhere on the globe.  He easily won a landslide victory in the 1904 election against a now almost forgotten Alton B. Parker.

For his part, Perdicaris eventually removed to just outside of London before dying there in 1925.  The revelation that he had not been an American at the time of the international incident did not emerge publicly until 1933.